Antinutrients in food or feeds prevent complete absorption of certain nutrients. Many antinutrients are naturally occurring, but will usually get destroyed or deactivated during cooking or fermentation.
Tannins/Phytates – Phytates chelate metal ions (iron, calcium, copper, magnesium, and zinc) making them unavailable for nutritive purposes. Tannins bind to proteins and other inorganic molecules and make them less accessible to digestion.
Trypsin Inhibitor – This family of chemicals lowers the ability of trypsin to convert protein to amino acids.
Lectins – Lectins bind to certain carbohydrates with high affinity and may cause allergic reactions.
Glucosinolates – Glucosinolates prevent iodine from being absorbed and may have a negative effect on thyroid activity.
Isoflavones – Isoflavones are phytoestrogens that may affect humans or other animals.
Saponins – Saponins may inhibit certain digestive enzymes and cause undesired reactions, such as inflammation.
Gossypol – Gossypol is a phenol derivative that inhibits a variety of enzymes, causes low potassium levels, and also has contraceptive properties. Gossypol also binds to proteins in feed, therefore reducing its nutritional availability.